Every education system is different from any other education system anywhere in the world. Each system is unique because of certain factors which have influenced its growth and development. Prominent among this actors include geographical, economical, racial, linguistic, moral and religious factors.
The geographical position has its inevitable impact on the culture, civilization and education of a nation, various countries have different geographical position there for there education system are also different for example an agricultural county emphasizes agricultural education in its education system and like wise an industrial county pays attention to technological and industrial subjects in its curriculum.
The geographical condition affects the school calendar in terms of season and time table, that is when class starts and ends for example in Uganda classes starts early in morning and close early in less colder areas for example in north they start as early as 7.00am to avoid the severe heat in the afternoons during the hot season. It is evident that education structure of a country is conditioned by its geographical situation.
Race refers to any or the different sub divisions or human beings, who share certain physical characteristics like the skin colour, type of hair, shape of eye and nose, the race which consider its self superior over the other. rises to rule over them, strengthens its control over them by developing a particular education system for example the French, British people established their control in Africa and they strengthened their control over the black nation for example in south Africa the racial system factor has been an effective element in the education system to that country. There was a policy to give separate to the whites and the blacks this was during the apartheid era.
The British also established their control over the Indians and English was made a medium of instruction, their action were prompted by the feeling that their cultures and civilization were superior to those of the Indian people.
Education system of a country is closely related with its economic conditions the type of economy has equally affected the education institution within the country. The general pattern is that that the poorer religions are ill-provided with educational institutions. In democratic countries like Britain, U.S.A, India, individuals own properties and it is recognized by the states. Therefore in development of there education systems, full attention is paid to the right of individuals. Therefore, the economic factor is a very effective element in the study of Cowes.
Language is an important tool of learning. It is used to communicate effectively. Language cannot be denied a special position in the education system of any country. If the mother tongue is a medium of instruction, people are generally of the strong national character. And if the medium is a foreign language the national character becomes weak. Therefore the medium of instruction has a special importance in the education system.
The religious factor cannot be ignored in the study of contemporary education. Different religious royalties has given birth to various educational instructions in different countries of the world, in the organization of the education system
The public is conservative and use any change with suspicion. For instance many institutions in Uganda are religious based a case in point is Islamic University In Uganda (IUIU), Uganda Marty’s university nkizi, bugemi seventh day Adventist university, Mukono Christian university among others.
The influence of ideology means influence of politics. Politics is so powerful in our every day life. Ideas like socialism, democracy humanism and others are political. All education decisions are political decisions. In this regard, decision making will be stable and the education system is likely to be stable. Likewise if the education system is unstable the political system suffers correspondingly. For example UPE (universal primary education) in Uganda was apolitical move which was initiated by President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni during the presidential campaign in1996. In Kenya Free Primary education (FPE) was introduced in January 2003 by the government to achieve universal primary education and education to all by2015.
Apartheid as apolitical ideology brought into existence a racially segregated education system in South Africa.