Viral Pharyngitis – Pharyngitis is the term given to inflammation of the pharynx, whereas tonsillitis is the inflammation of the tonsils. Both appear as a sore throat and, as often happens at the same time, we call this situation as a sore throat. Although swollen joints, some people are predominantly tonsillitis, while others, pharyngitis.
The aringoamigdalitis or sore throat irritation can be caused by bacterial or viral infections. Most cases are viral in origin, caused by several different types of virus. The presence of sore throat is also one of the criteria to distinguish the flu from the common cold.
Viral pharyngitis is a benign process that resolves spontaneously, but bacterial pharyngitis and tonsillitis should always be treated with antibiotics and can lead to complications such as abscess and rheumatic fever
So, how to distinguish a viral of bacterial tonsillitis?
The correct way is through the collection of material from the swab or throat swab, a cotton swab on the tip, where material is collected in the inflamed area for laboratory evaluation.
The swab problem is that the identification of the infectious agent takes at least 48 hours. There are already more rapid tests to identify the bacteria, but not always easy to obtain and send the material for analysis. Therefore, clinical assessment ends up being the most important parameter for the start of treatment.
The typical clinical presentation of pharyngitis is
– Sore throat
– Body aches
All the above symptoms are common to viral and bacterial infections. However, there are some other signs and symptoms that may indicate whether viral or bacterial pathogen.
For viral pharyngitis usually accompanied by other signs of respiratory infection such as coughing, sneezing, nasal cold, conjunctivitis, and hoarseness.
Strep bacteria do not cause the symptoms described above and usually have spots of pus on the tonsils and swollen lymph glands in the neck. The fever of bacterial infection is usually higher, but this is not a rule. Strep bacteria can also cause inflammation of the uvula and palate petechiae (bleeding spots).
The presence of pus and lymph node enlargement speaks strongly in favor of bacterial pharyngitis, but may occur in some viral infections, especially in infectious mononucleosis.
Mono is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and presents with fever, purulent tonsillitis, increased lifonodos the back of the neck (unlike bacterial tonsillitis has swollen lymph nodes in the anterior neck), enlarged spleen, weight loss, extreme tiredness and signs of hepatitis. The prescription of antibiotics such as amoxicillin in patients with mononucleosis may lead to the appearance of a rash (red spots all over the body).
It Houver faringite suspected cases of viral, or just break treatment and symptomatic medication. If symptoms suggest bacterial pharyngitis, we should start antibiotics intended not only to accelerate the healing process, as well as prevention of complications and transmission to family members. Transmission only occurs for people with intimate and prolonged contact. It is more common among children in daycare or school.
Among the complications of strep bacteria, the principal is rheumatic fever. Caused by Streptococcus bacteria, is mainly in the jovens and children.
Another type of complication of strep bacteria is caused by scarlet fever. It appears as a diffuse skin rash and can lead to rheumatic fever
Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis is a renal injury also caused by the same bacterium Streptococcus and leads to hypertension, hematuria (blood in urine) and renal failure.
Treatment of Pharyngitis
To avoid the above complications, antibiotic treatment should be carried out until the end of time prescribed, even if symptoms disappear in the early days. Treatment should be done with penicillin or its derivatives at least 10 days. In patients allergic to penicillin, azithromycin for 5 days is an option. In patients with severe inflammation of the pharynx that can not swallow tablets, or those not wishing to remain on medication for several days, an option is the injection of benzathine penicillin, the famous Benzetacil given a single dose.
– Honey: There is no work that has been able to demonstrate the benefits of honey
– Propolis: anti-inflammatory small presents. Works much less than any common antiiflamatorio.
– Papain: does not work and in large quantities can aggravate the inflammation.
There are no studies demonstrating the efficacy of homeopathy or herbal medicine in the treatment of pharyngitis. The duration of the disease and the incidence of complications is equal to placebo.
Who wants to symptomatic relief without taking many drugs, it is preferable to multiple daily gargling with warm water and a pinch of salt.
The removal of the tonsils (tonsillectomy) is an option in children older than 6 episodes of sore throat than a year. The incidence of complications is much lower in adults, and therefore, in this group the indication of tonsillectomy is more controversial. The patient ceases to be replaced by amigadilte but pharyngitis, which ultimately is the same.
Patients with recurrent infections of the throat can form crypts (tiny holes) in the tonsils. In these accumulate caseum a yellowish pus-like substance, which is actually more cellular debris of previous inflammation. The caseum is the cause of bad breath in people with tonsillitis / pharyngitis chronic.